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This glossary contains words that you will encounter while viewing information on the MSD1Stop portal that may be unfamiliar to you.
- Aided Language Stimulation - Systematic procedure often used by teachers to model the use of pictures or voice output device by actually using the device while communicating.
- Alternate Assessment - Developed in 1990 as a result of the Reform Act of 1990 to provide schools and programs with a valid and reliable means of assessing the instruction provided to students with moderate and significant disabilities (i.e., for the less than 1 percent of the total student population for whom traditional assessments would be an inappropriate measure of progress).
- Alternate Kentucky Performance Rating for Educational Progress (Alternate K-PREP) - Kentucky’s Alternate Assessment Accountability Model included all content areas in an item based assessment. Alternate K-PREP includes Attainment Tasks (Grades 3-12) and the Transition Attainment Record for students in grades 8, 10 and 11. These assessments meet federal requirements for the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA). These assessment options were required by implementation of Senate Bill 1.
- Alternative Communication - A form of communication used by individuals unable to produce oral speech.
- Alternative High School Diploma - A diploma received by a student with a severe disability who has completed a modified curriculum and an individualized course of study established by the Kentucky Board of Education (704 KAR 3:305). The alternative diploma will not count toward a district’s graduation rate as it is not fully aligned with the State’s academic content standards. Recipients of an alternative diploma participate in alternate assessments.
- Alternate Assessment Participation - Only a student who meets all of the eligibility requirements may participate in Kentucky’s alternate assessment. Eligible students shall be identified through the Admissions and Release Committee (ARC) process. The ARC for the student with disabilities shall:
- determine and verify in the student’s Individual Education Plan (IEP) that the student meets all of the criteria for admittance to the program;
- document in writing in the student’s record the basis for the decision using current and longitudinal data such as the following:
- performance data across multiple settings
- behavior observations in multiple settings
- adaptive behavior; and continuous assessment of progress on IEP goals/objectives; and
- review annually this decision in accordance with 707 KAR Chapter 1. A student is eligible for participation in the alternate assessment if the:
- student’s IEP program is current.
- student’s current level of communication been determined through observations and evaluations.
- current and longitudinal data across settings in all academic areas include progress in monitoring (IEP data and progress in general education curriculum) AND adaptive behavior(s) have been reviewed and documents the ARC decision.
- students demonstrate cognitive ability and adaptive behavior which prevent completion of the Program of Studies without modifications that exceed the accommodations allowed in the general assessments as described in the Inclusions Document and set forth in 703 KAR 5:070.
- the student’s inability to complete the Program of Studies is not the result of excessive or extended absences, or primarily the result of visual or auditory disabilities, emotional, behavioral disabilities, specific learning disabilities, communication disorder, or social, cultural, and economic differences and those identified as English Language Learners (ELL).
- Association of Career and Technical Education (ACTE) - National education association dedicated to the advancement of education that prepares youth and adults for careers.
- Auditory Training - The process that involves teaching the brain how to listen.
- Augmentative and Alternative Communication - Communication used when an individual is unable to produce intelligible oral speech.
- Augmentative Communication - A form of communication to supplement or clarify existing oral speech.
- Authentic Communication - Extending the communication exchange into a conversation.
- Benchmark - A standard or a set of standards, used as a point of reference for evaluating performance or level of quality.
- Career Ready for Students Participating in the General Assessment - Career readiness is the level of preparation a high school graduate needs in order to proceed to the next step in a chosen career, whether that is postsecondary course-work, industry certification, or entry into the workforce. According to the Association of Career and Technical Education (ACTE), career readiness includes core academic skills and the ability to apply those skills to concrete situations in order to function in the workplace and in routine daily activities; employability skills that are essential in any career area such as critical thinking and responsibility; and technical, job-specific skills related to a specific career pathway.
- Career Ready for Students Participating in the Alternate Assessment - Career readiness is the level of preparation a high school graduate needs in order to proceed to the next step in a chosen career, whether that is postsecondary coursework, industry certification, or entry into the workforce. According to the Association of Career and Technical Education (ACTE), career readiness includes core academic skills and the ability to apply those skills to concrete situations in order to function in the workplace and in routine daily activities; employability skills that are essential in any career area such as critical thinking and responsibility; and technical, job-specific skills. The student is preparatory in the Career Work Experience Curriculum and has: 1) met the benchmarks on the Employability Skills Attainment Record (ESAR), and 2) has obtained a Career Work Experience Certificate (CWEC).
- Career Work Experience Certification (CWEC) - For students participating in alternate assessment the CWEC is awarded to a student who has completed a Career Work Experience Curriculum.
- Career Work Experience Curriculum - A curriculum or program of study for experiential career education such as student employment or internship experiences prior to high school exit.
- College Ready for Students Participating in General Assessment - College readiness is the level of preparation a first-time student needs in order to succeed in a credit-bearing course at a postsecondary institution. “Succeed” is defined as completing entry-level courses at a level of understanding and proficiency that prepares the student for subsequent courses. Kentucky’s system-wide standards of readiness guarantee students access to credit-bearing coursework without the need for developmental education or supplemental courses. Developmental education courses do not award credit for a degree.
- College Ready for Students Participating in the Alternate Assessment - College readiness is the level of preparation a first-time student needs in order to succeed in a Comprehensive Transition Program (CTP). Kentucky’s standards of readiness include an inclusive and individualized post-secondary experience that encompasses academics, as well as social activities, employment experiences, independent living and leads to a meaningful credential.
- Communication - In order to establish a consistent communication system for students with significant disabilities who have complex communication needs (CCN)
- We MUST have a commonly understood definition of communication when working with students with significant disabilities.
- The entire team must understand acknowledge and whenever possible, honor student communication.
- Communication is both receptive and expressive.
- Comprehensive Transition Program (CTP) - Was initially described and defined by the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008. Comprehensive Transition Programs are degree, certificate, or non-degree programs for students with intellectual disabilities (ID) that:
- are offered by a college or career schools and approved by the U.S. Department of Education;
- are designed to support students with intellectual disabilities who want to continue academic, career, and independent living instruction to prepare for gainful employment;
- offers academic advising and a structured curriculum; and
- requires students with intellectual disabilities to participate, for at least half of the program, in:
- regular enrollment in credit-bearing courses with nondisabled students,
- auditing or participating (with nondisabled students) in courses for which the student does not receive regular academic credit,
- enrollment in noncredit-bearing, non-degree courses with nondisabled students, or
- internships or work-based training with nondisabled individuals.
- Data Line - Number of sessions or days indicated by multiple data points.
- Data Point - Number of correct responses, or percent of correct responses, divided by the number of opportunities given to a student in a session.
- Data Trend - A line that bisects the data points and indicate whether data is increasing or decreasing.
- Department of Labor Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) - A Department of Labor sub-cabinet level policy agency that provides national leadership by developing and influencing disability employment-related policies and practices affecting an increase in the employment of people with disabilities.
- Direct Selection - This is a method of access for a communication system. Direct selection can be accomplished by touching or pointing to the selected item or symbol.
- Dynamic Display - The display on the communication system changes depending on the student’s selection. For example, when a student selects the symbol for ‘math’ on their home screen, the display changes to present vocabulary associated with ‘math’.
- Employability Skills Attainment Record (ESAR) - For students participating in alternate assessment the ESAR is a checklist of skills and knowledge in the area of career awareness and development. The ESAR is included as an indicator of the student’s career readiness academically.
- Expressive Language - Conveying a message.
- Grid Display - The symbols on the communication device are arranged in lines and columns.
- High Tech Communication Device - The most sophisticated of communication devices. These devices are computer-based and allow the user to generate their own messages. These devices tend to be expensive and may require training for programming and use.
- Industry certification - Industry certificates are issued by an occupational or industry group to signal completion of particular training, coursework, apprenticeship or other preparation for a particular job or category.
- Intellectual Disability (as defined in Higher Education Act 2008) - As it relates to CTPs, a student with a cognitive impairment, characterized by significant limitations in intellectual and cognitive functioning; and adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. The student is currently, or was formerly, eligible for a free appropriate public education under IDEA.
- Intent - An individual’s reason for communicating.
- Intervener - A paraprofessional with specialized skills and training who provide support to students who are deaf/blind for all or part of the instructional day.
- Kentucky Occupational Skills Standards Assessment (KOSSA) - Assessments in Career and Technical Education based on standards identified by employers across the state.
- K-PREP Assessments - Senate Bill 1 (SB 1), enacted in the 2009 Kentucky General Assembly, required a new public school assessment program beginning in the 2011-12 school year. These assessments are collectively named the Kentucky Performance Rating for Educational Progress (K-PREP). The new assessment for grades 3-8 blends norm-referenced test (NRT) and criterion-referenced test (CRT) items which consist of multiple-choice (mc), extended-response (er) and short answer (sa) items. The NRT is a purchased test with national norms and the CRT portion is customized for Kentucky.
- Listener Comprehension - Person’s ability to understand the meaning of words that are heard and relate them in some way.
- Low Tech Communication Device - Communication devices that involve the use of simple electronics. These devices are usually battery operated and are typically limited to preprogrammed messages.
- Meaningful Credential - A credential offered by an approved CTP that is based upon an individually determined Program of Studies for each student, determined by student’s career goals, designed to support students with ID who are seeking to continue academic, career and technical, and independent living instruction at an institution of higher education in order to prepare for gainful employment.
- Mode - The specific behaviors used by the individual to communicate.
- The Model Comprehensive Transition and Postsecondary Programs for Students with Intellectual Disabilities (TPSID) - Provides grants to institutions of higher education or consortia of institutions of higher education to enable them to create or expand high quality, inclusive model comprehensive transition and postsecondary programs for students with ID.
- No Tech Communication Device - The least expensive communication devices that a frequently hand made with readily available materials. It is recommended that every student have at least one no teach device as a backup regardless of how complex his or her primary communication instrument is.
- Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) Skills to Pay the Bills — Mastering Soft Skills for Workplace Success - A curriculum developed by ODEP focused on teaching "soft" or workforce readiness skills to youth, including youth with disabilities. Created for youth development professionals as an introduction to workplace interpersonal and professional skills, the 4 curriculum is targeted for youth ages 14 to 21 in both in-school and out-of-school environments. The basic structure of the program is comprised of modular, hands-on, engaging activities that focus on six key skill areas: communication, enthusiasm and attitude, teamwork, networking, problem solving and critical thinking, and professionalism.
- Peer Network - A group of three to six students without disabilities matched with one student with a significant disability, who meet regularly, usually once a week, to talk, enjoy an activity together, and socialize.
- Peer Support - One to three students without disabilities providing academic and social support to a student with a disability(s) in a general education class.
- Probe - To assess.
- Receptive Language - What the student understands.
- Scanning - This is a method of access for a communication system. Scanning systems present one choice at a time, with the student indicating when the desired choice is presented.
- Shared Reference - Also known as “joint attention”, two individuals share a visual referent.
- Significant Cognitive Impairments - The U.S. Department of Education intended the term “significant cognitive disabilities” to include that small number of students who are (1) within one or more of the existing categories of disability under the IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) (e.g., autism, multiple disabilities, traumatic brain injury, etc.); (2) whose cognitive impairments may prevent them from attaining grade-level achievement standards, even with the very best instruction (p. 23).
- Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) - Individuals who assess, diagnose, treat and help to prevent communication and swallowing disorders in patients.
- Standards of Readiness - Most definitions of college readiness include some predictive statement about how well students will do in relevant college courses based on national assessments, such as the ACT or SAT. For example, ACT sets benchmark scores for college readiness based on success in college courses that would count toward a degree. “Success” is defined by ACT as 50 percent or higher probability of earning a B or higher in the corresponding college course or courses and 75 percent or higher probability of earning a C or higher in the corresponding college course or courses.
- Standards of Readiness for Students Participating in the Alternate Assessment - The completion of a course of study that prepares the student for an inclusive and individualized post-secondary experience that encompasses academics, as well as social activities, employment experiences, independent living and leads to a meaningful credential.
- Static Display - On a communication device with a static display all the symbols remain the in same location and in the same order.
- Student Preferences - Things that the student responds or alerts to when presented or available.
- Systematic Presentation - Teaching procedure that allows us to control or manipulate the parts.
- Symbolic Representation - Process of expressing mental processes and ideas in a symbolic way, by the use of words or sound.
- Transition Attainment Record (TAR) - For students participating in Alternate K-PREP, the TAR is a checklist which evaluates the student’s readiness in reading/language arts, mathematics, and science. The TAR is included as the indicator for college readiness. Recipients of an Alternative High School Diploma will participate in alternate assessments.
- Unconventional Communication (idiosyncratic) - Modes of communication that are more challenging to understand.
- Visual Scene Display - A picture of a common location or event with several hot spots. The hot spots are people, items or locations on the picture that represent the location where the AAC device stores the word or message that hot spot represents.